Standards for Non cyclic Activities and work Measurement Systems
Although work sampling can be used in most situations, its most outstanding field of application is in the measurement of non cyclical types of work where many different tasks are performed but there is no set cycle pattern or regularity. In many jobs, the frequency of tasks within the job is based on a random demand function. For example, a storeroom clerk may fill requisitions, unpack and put away stock, deliver material to production departments, clean up the storeroom, and so on. The frequency and time requirements of some of these tasks depend on factors outside the control of the clerk. To determine such production standards by stopwatch methods would be difficult or impossible. Work sampling fits this situation ideally because, through its random sampling approach, reliable estimates of time and performance for these randomly occurring tasks can be obtained.
Standard Data Work Measurement Systems
Two kinds of standard data are used: universal data based on minute elements of motion (often called universal or micro data) and standard data for families of jobs (often called macro-standard data or element standard data).
Universal Standard Data:
Universal standard data give time values for fundamental types of motions, so complete cycle times can be synthesized by analyzing the motions required to perform the task. Fundamental time values of this nature can be used as building blocks for forecasting the standard time, provided that the time values are properly gathered and that the various minute motion elements required by the tasks are analyzed perfectly.
The result provided by these synthetic standards is an estimate of the normal time for the task. Standard time is then determined as before by adding allowances for delay, fatigue, and personal time.
Does performance rating enter into standards developed from universal data? Not for each standard developed because the analyst simply uses the time value from a table for a given motion. However, performance rating was used to develop the time values that are in the tables, so the rating factor enters the system, but not for each occasion that the data are used.
Many people feel that universal standard data lead to greater consistency of standards because analysts are not called on to judge working pace in order to develop a standard. This does not mean that judgment is eliminated from the use of universal standard data systems, however. A great deal of Judgment is required in selecting the appropriate classifications of motion to use in analyzing an operation. An inexperienced person ordinarily will not be able to perform these selections accurately enough for the purposes of determining production standards.
Using universal standard data as the sole basis for determining production standards is not common. In most cases where data of this kind are used, they are employed in conjunction with some other technique, such as a stopwatch study or work sampling. The reason for this methodology seems to be that most organizations feel more comfortable when some actual direct measurement of the work involved has been made.
Standard Data for Job Families:
Standard data for job families give normal time values for major elements of jobs (macro-standard data) Also, time values for machine set-up and for different manual elements are given, so a normal time for an entirely new job can be constructed through an analysis of blueprints to see what materials are specified, what cuts must be made, how the work piece can be held in the machine, and so forth. Unlike the universal standard data discussed previously, however, the time values for these elements have been based on actual previous stopwatch studies or other measurements of work within the job family.