Figure below presents a computer program designed to use SPSS*(Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 10) to perform univariate and multivariate tabulations on survey data that have been stored in computer memory space or key punched onto computer cards. This program is for use only with SPSS* — it will not operate with SPSS. The program can be used for any number of questionnaires, from a few dozen to as many as 125 questions, including multiple choice and open questions, if the number of response categories is 10 or fewer.
It should be noted that this program is not the only way to program SPSS* to perform univariate and multivariate tabulations and that researchers skilled in computer programming are likely to write more sophisticated programs. Researchers inexperienced in the use of the computer to analyze data, however, will be able to create the univariate and multivariate tabulations they desire if they follow the instructions presented here.
Figure below shows the computer commands that constitute the program. Each line of capitalized print in the figure represents one computer command. The reader should now imagine herself or himself sitting in front of a computer terminal with the terminal’s key board at his or her fingertips – just as one would sit in front of a typewriter.
Figure: SPSS* Computer Program for Univariate and Multivariate Tabulations
// ABCDEFGH _ JOB_(1423, 1,2), BOWEST, MSGLEVEL=1, CLASS = 1, TIME =(0,30)
// _ EXEC _ SPSSX
// RAWDATA _DD_ DSN = ABCDEFGH, DATA. ONLY, DISP = SHR
DATA_ LIST_ FILE = RAWDATA FREE
_/RESPNUM, SEX, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, YEAR
VARIABLE_ LABELS_ SEX_ SEX _OF_ RESPONDENT
HEIGHT _ HEIGHT _ OF_ RESPONDENT’
WEIGHT _ WEIGHT _OF_ RESPONDENT’
YEAR _ ‘YEAR _ OF _ RESPONDENT’
VALUE _ LABELS_ SEX_ 1_ MALE’ _ 2_ ‘FEMALE’ /
YEAR_1_ ‘FRESHMAN’ _ 2_ ‘SOPHOMORE’ _ 3_ ‘JUNIOR’ _4_ ‘SENIOR’
FREQUENCIES _ VARIABLES = SEX, YEAR /
_ STATISTICS _ ALL
BEGIN _ DATA
END _ DATA
CROSSTABS _ TABLES = YEAR _ BY _ HEIGHT /
WEIGHT _ BY _ HEIGHT _ BY _ SEX
STATISTICS _ ALL
By following the instructions given below, readers can create a computer program similar to that in Figure by using the terminal to type the letter, number, symbols and blank spaces required for each command.
Readers should type each computer command to be identical to those shown in the exhibit (except for the name of the researcher, the tile of the research or the computer run, and the names of the variables or data being analyzed). Where the exhibit shows a blank space (indicated by an underscore) a comma, a slash, an equal sign, or a parenthesis, readers should do exactly the same. (Note: If the reader wishes, he or she can use the following instructions to create the same program on computer cards. To do so, each command should be key punched on a separate card, and the commands then placed in the order shown.
A hypothetical example is used to illustrate this program. One hundred college students were asked questions about their height in inches, weight in pounds, sex, and year in college. For the purpose of identification each student (and each questionnaire) was given an identification number. Data from each questionnaire were stored in computer memory space, and the entire set of data from all 100 students was identified by the name RAWDATA. (The name of the set of data is limited to eight letters).
Readers can think of computer memory space as a sheet of paper with a number of rows and a number of columns. Data are stored in the rows and columns in some organized manner. In SPSS* one row of space is assigned to the data from each questionnaire. Since there are 100 students – hence 100 questionnaires – in our hypothetical study, there will be 100 rows of data stored in computer memory space.