Total Quality Management – TQC


Total Quality Control (TQC) works on the basis of the following functions:

1. Quality of design
2. Quality of planning
3. Quality of production
4. Quality of shipment
5. Quality of field service (market)

The above functions are integrated to the quality objectives. TQC concept was first put forward in 1957 by Dr. AV Feigenbaum who advised to take quality beyond the shop floor and wanted the process to start at the planning and design stage and continue it till the product reaches the consumer. Its philosophy is ‘do it right the first time, every-time.’

Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the techniques, along with others like supply chain management, re-engineering, cellular manufacturing and bench-marking, which seek to improve a company’s operational effectiveness (OE)

TQM and other OE techniques can elevate a company’s operations to a level that cannot be surpassed, unless there is alternative superior technology. This could be a short-term competitive advantage. It is necessary to appreciate that rivals can also adopt the same OE techniques, including TQM. TQM thus cannot replace strategy

Green has put forward the concept of global Quality—modified version of TQM. As we know TQM is not restricted to just statistical and process improvement techniques, but covers knowledge-management, group dynamics, customer understanding, innovation and commitment. It is now proposed that organization culture (OC) is an integral part of post-TQM paradigm.

TQM is now viewed as a tool for organizational and attitudinal change. Green has already put intellectual capital, innovation and understanding customers as components of a strategy. Thus there is a tenuous link between TQM and strategy.

A successful strategy, according to his hypothesis, is not created but it evolves. Thus an organization creates an organization context which facilitates the emergence of this strategy. The catalysts are participatory style, encouraging individual’s talents and knowledge to utilize it for new strategies, organization –wide dialogue or open culture and test-run of the strategies so as to derive more learning. TQM can create this type of culture.

Total Quality Management (TQM) aims at doing things better and avoiding wastes. TVS Electronics an organization of a reputed group in India has eliminated on the shop-floor all non-value added activities of manufacturing.

Value engineering is used as a key cost-reduction and elimination tool. The target is to reduce costs by 10% every year. The assembly line has been replaced by cellular manufacturing. They have adopted a lean production system. In cellular manufacturing system, each team has been assigned complete responsibility of assembling an entire product. This curtails the production related costs.

A suggestion scheme has been introduced at the shop-floor level. Cost-saving suggestions attract cash incentives. Wasteful activities are identified by video-filming. Delivery schedule is maintained 100%. Scrap is reduced.

In conclusion the terminology >>>

Quality assessment is a probe of the level of quality being achieved. Quality Control starts with quality assessment, and includes action taken to do away with unacceptable quality. A typical QC programs is based on periodic inspection, later followed by feedback on results, and the adjustments made where found necessary. Quality Control is a system of setting the quality standards, appraising conformance to these standards, actions taken when standards are not met and planning changes in these standards. Quality Assurance is quality control, but with an emphasis on quality in the design of the products, processes and jobs and in the selection of personnel and their training. Total Quality Control (TQC) refers to a total commitment to quality in all its aspects, to commitment of quality in all functional areas of work and makes use of behavioral techniques like QC’s (quality circles), zero-defect programs etc. The biggest misconception that people have about TQC is that it is restricted to product quality. It is not. It is about the quality of all business processes.