Functions of QC
The functions of quality control (QC) include the following:
1) To see that the product or service is designed in such a way so that it meets customers’ specifications. It is the function of design and engineering division.
2) To see the product or services used by a customer is not harmful or injurious and meets safety conditions. Necessary instructions or warning should be given as a part of conditions of use, in the form of a leaflet or pamphlet. This should be done to avoid legal actions against the firm. If a product or service proves to be harmful or fails to give satisfactory performance or the performance as stated in leaflet or advertisements etc or if a manufacturer does not warn the customers against the misuse of a product or service, a manufacturer may have to face litigation.
3) To maintain discipline amongst the employees and to boost their morale: Healthy atmosphere in a firm is to be maintained for this purpose. The quality of a product in a particular unit also depends on the people working in that unit and therefore sincere efforts should be made to raise or at least to maintain the level of discipline and morale.
4) To see that the materials, parts, components, tools, equipments etc of standard quality only are purchased and used. Use of substandard materials, parts, tools etc results in more scrap or defective products. Moreover, it increases the cost of production. If a material worth Rs 50 is inspected before it is sent for further processing, it saves Rs 500 at the final stage, because the cost of labor and overheads spent on the same during the production cycle is saved, if it is found at the initial stage that the material is defective.
5) To provide current information on variations and trends sown by the process for the purpose of control. It is necessary to find out the causes of variations so that corrective actions can be designed in a proper way.
6) To make the employees quality conscious by fixing their responsibility at various sages of production: A particular employee can be held responsible for a certain defect, if the stage of defect is identified. A worker may have worked with full responsibility but there may be a fault in machine also. Therefore the responsibility of a defect found out afterwards must determined very carefully.
7) To reduce the proportion of scrap, waste and spoilage during the process: The causes for all these three during the process should be studied carefully and the points or sages of such losses should be identified, so that corrective action can be taken to reduce the losses arising out of scrap, waste an spoilage.
8) To see that product support services are provided satisfactorily after the products have been sold. This factor also affects the goodwill of any manufacturing unit and therefore it is very important to maintain service stations region wise in the market area with proper staff and equipment.
Quality Control in Japan:
Toady, according to JUSE’s Junji Noguchi, quality control in Japan has six principal features:
Company Wide Quality Control (CWQC)
All parts of a firm co-operate to control quality, which has been broadened in meaning to include productivity and efficiency. Companies assist suppliers to achieve necessary QC levels.
Top management examines QC effectiveness in the firm, its affiliates or suppliers, JUSE and other organizations conduct external audits, as with the Deming Prize competition. It is another means of promoting company wide QC in Japan.
Education and Training:
Most major companies hold regular in-house QC courses that are required for all, personnel from the Board of Directors downwards, as well as selective specialized classes. JUSE offers programs for management and workers.
Small voluntary groups undertake work related projects to improve quality. Quality Circle (QC) can be defined as a voluntary group of 5 – 15 people, who do they same or similar work, and meet regularly, under the leadership of a foreman, to solve work related problems.
Application of Statistical:
Workers, management and engineers communicate and solve production and QC problems with such statistical tools as Pareto charts, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets satisfaction, scatter diagrams and Shewart control charts.
Nationwide QC Activities:
Annually there are regional and national conferences held for management and workers so that QC problems common to one or more industries can be explored and a solution found.