Principles & areas of training


Providing training in the knowledge of different skills is a complex process. A number of principles have been evolved which can be followed as guidelines by the trainees. Some of them are as follows:


As the effectiveness of an employee depends on how well he is motivated by management, the effectiveness of learning also depends on motivation. In other words, the trainee will acquire a new skill or knowledge thoroughly and quickly if he or she is highly motivated. Thus, the training must be related to the desires of the trainee such as more wages or better job, recognition, status, promotion etc. The trainer should find out the proper ways to motivate experienced employees who are already enjoying better facilities in case of re-training.

Progress Information:

It has been found by various research studies that there is a relation between learning rapidly and effectively and providing right information specifically, and as such the trainer should not give excessive information or information that can be misinterpreted. The trainee also wants to learn a new skill without much difficulty and without handing too much or receiving excessive information or wrong type of progressive information. So, the trainer has to provide only the required amount of progressive information specifically to the trainee.


The effectiveness of the trainee in learning new skills or acquiring new knowledge should be reinforced by means of rewards and punishments. Examples of positive reinforcement are promotions, rise in pay, praise etc. Punishments are also called negative reinforcements. Management should take care to award the successful trainees.

The management can punish the trainees whose behavior is undesirable. But the consequences of such punishments have their long-run ill effect on the trainer as well as on the management. Hence, the management should take much care in case of negative reinforcements.


A trainee should actively participate in the training programs in order to make the learning programs an effective one. Continuous and long practice is highly essential for effective learning. Jobs are broken down into elements from which the fundamental physical, sensory and mental skills are extracted. Training exercise should be provided for each skill.

Full Vs Part:

It is not clear whether it is best to teach the complete job at a stretch or dividing the job into parts and teaching each part at a time. If the job is complex and requires a little too long to learn, it is better to teach part of the job separately and then put the parts together into an effective complete job. Generally the training process should start from the known and proceed to the unknown and from the easy to the difficult when parts are taught. However, the trainer has to teach the trainees based on his judgment on their motivation and convenience.

Individual Differences:

Individual training is costly, and group training is economically viable and advantageous to the organization. But individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from person to person. So the trainer has to adjust the training programs to the individual abilities and aptitude. In addition, individual teaching machines and adjustments of differences should be provided.

Areas of Training:

Organization provides training to their employees in the following areas:

1. Company policies and procedures;
2. Specific skills;
3. Human relations;
4. Problem solving;
5. Managerial and supervisory skills; and
6. Apprentice training.

Company Policies and Procedures:
This area of training is to be provided with a view to acquainting the new employee with the Company Rules, Practices, Procedures, Tradition, Management, Organization Structure, Environment Products & Services offered by the company etc.

This acquaintance enables the new employee to adjust himself with the changing situations. Information regarding company rules and policies creates favorable attitudes of confidence in the minds of new employee about the company and its products/services, as well as it develops in him a sense of respect for the existing employees of the company and the like. The company also provides first hand information to the employee about the skills needed by the company, its development programs, quality of products / services and the like. This enables the new employees to know his share of contribution to the organization’s growth and development.

Training in Specific Skills:
This area of training is to enable the employee more effective on the job. The trainer trains the employee regarding various skills necessary to do the actual job. For example, the clerk in the bank should be trained in the skills of making entries correctly in the edge, skills and arithmetical calculations, quick comparison of figures, entries and the like. Similarly, the technical officers are to be trained in the skills of project appraisal, supervision, follow-up and the like.

Human Relations Training:
Human relations training assumes greater significant in organizations as employees have to maintain human relation not only with other employees but also with their customers. Employees are to be trained in the areas of self learning, interpersonal competence, group dynamics, perception, leadership styles, motivation, grievance redresses, disciplinary procedure, and the like. This training enables the employees for better team work, which leads to improved efficiency and productivity of the organization

Problem Solving Training:
Most of the organizational problems are common to the employees dealing the same activity at different levels of the organization. Further some of the problems of different managers may have the same root cause. Hence, management may call together all managerial personnel to discuss common problems so as to arrive at affective solutions across the table. This not only helps in solving the problem but also serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information that could be utilized. The trainer has to organize such meetings, train and encourage the trainees to participate actively in such meetings.

Managerial and Supervisory Training:
Even the non-managers sometimes perform managerial and supervisory functions like planning, decision-making , organizing, maintaining inter-personal relations, directing and controlling. Hence management has to train the employee in managerial and supervisory skills also.

Apprentice Training :
The Apprentice Act, 1961 requires industrial units of specified industries to provide training in basic skills and knowledge in specified trades to educated un-employees / apprentices with a view to improve their employment opportunities or to enable them to start their own industry. This type of training is between one to four years. This training is generally used for providing technical knowledge in the areas like trades, crafts etc.

In addition any specialized training as required for the organization is imparted to selective employees intended to take up the assignment. Even employees are sent abroad or sent for special courses in study leave if the employer is ensured by the employee of working in the organization for a certain period of time after the course by some suitable legal undertaking.

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