Two Japanese gurus Yoshikazu Tsuda (64) and Sueo Yamaguchi (52) have been proponents of total quantity. Tsuda is a retired professor of Mathematics. He is now a counselor at the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). Yamaguchi works at the Japanese Institute of Plant Management (JIPM) which is a temple of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Tsuda goes top down, and Yomaguch bottom up. Yamaguchi TPM to Indian companies. The steps in TPM program are:
1) Plant audit and assessment
2) Company commitment
3) Formation of committees and sub committees.
a) TPM promotion committee
b) TPM steering committee
c) Jishu Hozen sub-committee
d) Kaizen sub-committee
e) Planned maintenance sub-committee
f) Quality maintenance sub-committee
g) Office TPM sub-committee
h) Planning and design sub-committee
i) Education and Training sub-committee
j) Safety and environment sub-committee
4) Selection of pilot line (s)
5) Focus on eight pillars
a) Autonomous maintenance
b) Improvement activities
c) Zero loss
d) Zero defect
e) Efficiency of support services
f) Institution of flow control systems
g) Zero accidents
6) Raise levels and select other areas
7) Focus on eight pillars in new areas.
Who leads to TPM excellence?
1) Promotion, monitor-ring and reviewing
2) TPM results
3) Raising levels and revising standards
Based on the study of American Preventive Maintenance (PM) techniques between 1950 and 1970, Yamaguchi crafted the concept of TPM and TQM complement each other. There is never a conflict. Many companies implement TPM after TQM in India.
Tsuda is teaching TQM to Indian companies. The basic steps are:
1) Plant audits and assessments
2) Good house keeping practices
3) Selection of pilot line
4) Emphasize worker safety
5) Focus on 5–S which define standards of cleanliness and house keeping
a) Seri (Clearing)
b) Seiton (Organizing)
c) Seiso (cleaning)
d) Seiketsu ( Standardizing)
e) Shitsuke (Training)
6) Sunrise / sunset meetings
7) PDC Cycle introduced
8) Gap analysis /standardization
9) Management system
Tsuda examines the vision and strategy of a company and current practices of quality. He organizes learning companies into clusters.
Yamaguchi tries to change the mind set about the real value of TPM. He expects personal commitment of the CEO. He wants middle management participation.
Scientific management has brought about a great change in the industrial atmosphere. A few questions which were considered to be of no great importance in the past have come to be recognized as no less important than anything else. Let us see one of such questions. Which type of person should be selected for a particular position? How should a particular work be done or that it is performed in the best manner? Managers no more reply to this question with authoritarian approach. Each job is systematically studied to answer all such questions. The thorough study of the job will find out the nature of the job, qualifications necessary to be possessed by a person to do the job effectively etc The study of the job can also give comparative value of each job and the proper pay for each job can also be indicated by the study. Let us first of all be familiar with different words used in scientific study of work.
Job is activity involving a particular set of duties and functions and which can be assigned to an individual employee, for example typing is a job. Many employees may be doing one type of job (i.e. there may be a number of typists in a firm)
A job is defined as an assignment of work calling for a set of duties and conditions that are different from those of other work assignments.
The personnel tool with which the duties, responsibilities, operations, conditions and organizational, aspects of a particular job are studies specified and clearly enumerated is job analysis. The job analysis is a procedure by which the facts with respect to each job were systematically discovered and noted.
The information gathered by job analysis is very much detailed. When this information is presented in a concise form and in an orderly manner, it becomes job description. Here, the name of the job, its functions, the machines and instruments used, hours of work, conditions of work, and personnel requirements of the job are mentioned.
Job description prepared on the basis of job analysis gives complete details about the job. But, all this information is not necessary for selection of employees. From the job specification, the portion stating skills, abilities and qualification expected of the employees is prepared separately which is known as job specification.
A comparative study of all the jobs is made to determine the value of each job when compared with other jobs. This is known as job evaluation. The ideas of wages payable for each job can be gathered by job evaluation.
In job evaluation, only the job was thought of; but in merit rating the attention is given towards the employee performing the job. Here the importance of the employee in the business, his abilities, intelligence training, education etc are compared with the other employee and amount payable to him in the form of wages /salary can be determined.