In an organization, need fulfillment is the responsibility of the management. Therefore, the managers should be aware of the needs of the employees. If the needs are legitimate, they should provide opportunities for their attainment.
The management’s first task is to identify the present needs of the employee. The intensity with which they are expressed may vary from individual to individual. Observing a particular employee over a period and studying his interests may reveal his needs. At other times, the employee can be called for discussions and interviews in order to identify his needs.
After knowing the needs of the employees, the management has to find ways to fulfill these needs. In doing so the cost which the organization is going to incur, is also to be taken into consideration. Similarly the effects on workers’ behavior, or the benefits derived from the need fulfillment activity is also to be considered. On other words a cost benefit analysis is done in order to measure the whole process.
The various ways by which the management can attempt to fulfill the needs of the employees are as follows:
1) Physiological needs: The management can fulfill these basic needs by providing reasonable wages and salaries enough to procure the basic necessities of life.
2) Security needs: These can be fu9lfilled by ensuring a consistent, fair and concerned attention to the workers. Medical facilities, disability compensation, pension plan, social security benefits etc could be provided to give the employee a sense of security.
3) Social and affiliation needs: The management can provide the fulfillment of these needs by providing for work breaks, organizing get-togethers and picnics. Also, the employee can be provided proper job assignments.
4) Competence needs: The management can assign jobs to the employees based on their capabilities and competencies. Necessary training, effective communication, and other material assistance and proper feedback for the efficient performance of the job can be provided.
5) Reputation need: Never let the employee feel that his job is not recognized. The reputation needs can be fulfilled by praising an employee for the job well done. Promotions and increments based upon merits and performance should be given. Other techniques like worker of the week award, other forms of management response to the needs of the workers for esteem and recognition should be evolved and implemented
The need for power is generally fulfilled by delegation of authority:
The need for achievement can be fulfilled by assigning greater delegation of decision making duties and assigning task involving active participation.
Self actualization Needs:
These are needs which helps realize one’s own potentialities or continued self development and for being creative. Maslow points out that a man generally wants to achieve self fulfillment; that is, he has a tendency to develop his potential. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is to become everything that one is capable of becoming. To satisfy this, a person may attempt to become a good singer, a reputed author or an exemplary manger.
It is not necessary that the hierarchy of needs, as described by Maslow, follow the pattern. Therefore, Maslow has listed out certain exceptions to this general tendency, like:
1) When a need has been satisfied for a long time, this need may be under valued.
2) The mergence of anew need is a gradual phenomenon not a sudden one.
3) In an average person, needs are more often unconscious than conscious
4) A basically satisfied person no longer has the need for esteem love, safety etc.
As seen earlier, conscious and unconscious needs become string in an individual and create tensions, which stimulate a behavior that leads to the tensions being relieved. But to satisfy all the needs completely and permanently is not possible. Sometimes an individual may have hopes / needs too high for his capacity.
If a need is not satisfied it can lead to tension and frustration in the mind of the individual. On the other hand if satisfied this can lead to reduction in tension. This procedure can be explained below:
1) Unsatisfied need
3) Reduction of tension
1) Drives need
Makes efforts for>