Line authority: The authority exerted by an HR manager by directing the activities of the people in his or her own department and in service areas (like the plant cafeteria)
The direct handling of people has always been an integral part of every time manager’s duties, from president down to first line supervisor. For example, one major company out lines its line supervisors’ responsibilities for effective human resource management under these general headings:
1) Placing the right person in right job
2) Starting new employees in the organization (orientation)
3) Training employees for jobs that are new to them
4) Improving the job performance of each person
5) Gaining creative cooperation and developing smooth working relationships
6) Interpreting the company’s policies and procedures
7) Controlling labor costs
8) Developing the abilities of each person
9) Creating and maintaining department morale ‘
10) Protecting employees’ health and physical condition.
In providing this specialized assistance, the human resource manager carries out three distinct functions:
A line function: The human resource manager directs the activities of the people in his or her own department and in relaxed service areas (like the plant cafeteria). In other words, he or she exerts line authority within the HR department. While they generally can’t wield line authority, they are likely to exert implied authority. This is because line managers know the human resource manager has top management’s ear in areas like testing and affirmative action.
The authority exerted by an HR manager by virtue of, others’ knowledge that he or she has access to top management (in areas like testing and affirmative, action).
Functional Control: The authority exerted by a HR manager as coordinator of personnel activities.
Employee advocacy: HR must take responsibility for clearly defining how management should be treating employees, make sure employees have the mechanisms required to contest unfair practices, and represent the interests of employees within the framework of its primary obligation to senior management.
A coordinative function: human resource managers also coordinate personnel activities, a duty often offered to as functional authority (or functional control) here he or she acts as the right arm of the top executive to ensure that line managers are implementing the firm’s human resource policies and practices (for example, adhering to its sexual harassment policies).
Staff (assist and advise) functions: Assisting and advising line managers is the heart of they human resource manager’s job. He or she advises the CEO to better understand the personnel aspects of the company’s strategic options. HR assists in hiring, training, evaluating, rewarding, counseling, promoting, and firing employees. It administers the various benefit programs (health and accident insurance, retirement, vacation, and so on). It helps line managers comply with equal employment and occupational safety laws, and plays an important role in handling grievances and labor relations. It carries out an innovator role, by providing up to date information on current trends and new methods for better utilizing the company’s employees, or human resources. It plays an employee advocacy role, by helping to define how management should be treating employees.
The size of the human resource department reflects the size of the company. For a very large company, an organization chart like the one in figure would be typical, containing a full complement of specialists for each HR function. At the other extreme, the human resource team for a small manufacturer may contain just five or six staff. There is generally about one human resource employee per 100 company employees.
Examples of human resource management specialties include:
1) Recruiters: Search for qualified job applicants
2) Human resource development specialist: Managing employee development activities in an integrated manner.
3) Job analysts: Collect and examine information about jobs to prepare job descriptions
4) Compensation managers: Develop compensation plans and handle the employee benefits program
5) Training specialists: plan, organize, and direct training activities.
6) Employment /industrial relations specialists: advise management on all aspects of union management relations
7) Employee welfare officers: handle welfare activities in factories, as required by law.