MODIFIED STANDARDS ISO 9000:2000
The new modified standards are focused more on results and quality management principles. It has a very strong emphasis on the management commitment, and how the top management is providing leadership to various processes involved in product realization for the satisfaction of the customer.
There is one accreditation body present in each nation, there can be more than one body in some special cases e.g. Germany has multiple. In April 2000, QCI has announced the first two accreditation bodies in India National Accreditation Board for Certification and National Accreditation Board for Auditors and Training. There are eight quality management principles. They are customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, system approach to management, continual improvement factual approach to decision making and mutually beneficial supplier relationships.
Salient Features of ISO: 2000
1. It is obligatory to identify non-conformities. Non-conformity is a shortfall between what is desired to be achieved and what is actually achieved. It leads to identification of problems areas or prospective areas of improvement.
2. Systematic prevention of non-conformities is another salient feature of ISO 9000.
3. ISO 9000 requires a formally documented procedure for each and every activity which is likely to have a bearing on quality either directly or indirectly.
4. It requires faithful implementation of procedures and their revision if called for.
5. ISO confines itself to standard formulation. Implementation is left to individual nations. In India, there is National Accreditation Board which in turn accredits the certifying bodies who conduct certification audits. The organization has to furnish documentary evidence (proper quality standards) to substantiate the effective operation of quality management system. The certification is valid for o more than 3 years. In this period also, surveillance audits are carried out to see compliance.
Selection of Appropriate Standards:
ISO: 9004 Standard has been re-designated in 1994 as ISO: 9004-1. ISO standards are used in two situations:
(a) Contractual purposes.
(b) Internal quality assurance purposes.
Contractual relations could be between a supplier and customer or between the supplier and the certification body. There are three parts of ISO 9000 standards governing contractual relations are:
ISO: 9001 Covers quality assurance during design, development, product, installation and servicing of products and services. Product standards mean that it prevents occurrence of non-conforming products and services.
ISO: 9002 Assures quality during production, installation and servicing of products and services.
ISO: 9003 sorting finished product and services by carrying out final inspection and test.
What has been preached about quality by stalwarts like Deming, Juran and Crosby is taken care of by this standard. There are 20 system elements in this standard proposed to be withdrawn.
The internal quality assurance without any contractual obligation so as to achieve competitiveness and need-satisfying product quality for customers is governed by ISO: 9004.
ISO: 9004 Designs to reflect customer needs. Product at acceptable price, Design planning, Time element introduced in design planning, Market readiness review, Design verification and validation in detail.
Quality in marketing:
Economies of quality integrated to 9001,
ISO 11011 and ISO 11012
These address matters related to quality audits and the upkeep and use of measurement equipment.
DIN ISO 14000
This is for environmental management systems. We have ISO 14001 and 14004.
This is equivalent to ISO 9000. This certification is necessary for ELL nations and NAFTA.