Waste Management (WM) has several dimensions – engineering, economic, geographic, and social management. Its basic purpose is to minimize the overall waste in a given system. Waste here refers to waste of all kinds of resources, but especially the materials resources which constitute a significant portion. Some waste is inevitable in any conversion process of inputs into outputs. To reduce waste, we have therefore to maximize the use of resources. Resources Management and Waste Management are thus supportive to each other.
Classification of Waste
Waste can be classified on the basis of:
1) Resources wasted
Waste Resources: Material resources like solids, liquids, and gases can be wasted. Energy resources like physical, human and solar energy can be wasted. Time resource can be wasted. Capital in the form of capacity, equipment, machine hours and inventory can be wasted. Services like communication, transport, health etc can be wasted. Life or human resources data and information may also suffer wastages.
Origin of waste: It could be industrial, residential, commercial, office, municipal, construction and demolition, agriculture etc.
Property: materials wasted are either hazardous or non-hazardous
Recoverable: Wastes can be recovered into some useful resources, material waste recycled. Non- recoverable wastes are lost with time.
Waste exists in-myriad forms – non-workable components excess inventory machine downtime, re-work non-conformance, warranties. Any activity that does not add value is a waste re-work is the biggest non-value added activity that a company performs. If we reduce the unnecessary activities or eliminate them, costs will come down drastically.
Measurement of waste:
Wastivity = Waste (W) / Input (I)
Gross Wastivity = Total Waste /Total Input
Net waste = Total Waste – Waste Recycled within the system
Net Wastivity = Net waste /Total Input
Wastivity and Productivity
Waste is an indirect measure of productivity. If Wastivity is checked, the effect productivity will be automatically improved.
Causes of Waste:
Various causes are responsible for wastes. An illustrative list is given below. The highest waste causing factors are considered to be critical.
Causes of Waste
1) Faulty planning ad policies systems and procedures
2) Faulty organization structure
3) Environmental pressures m
5) Lack of accountability
6) Unawareness of technological advances
7) Non-responsiveness to automation / computerization
8) Wrong specifications, standard, codes
9) Wrong raw materials
10) Lack of inventory control
11) Lack of proper storage, layout of facilities, handling iof material
12) Communication gaps
13) Faulty work method
14) Less emphasis on PPC
15) Lax supervision and control
16) Wrong recruitment /selection policies
17) Lack of motivation / incentives
18) Poor working conditions
19) Unsafe practices
20) Poor IR: Industrial Relations
21) Maintenance failure
22) Power failure
23) Distribution problems
24) Less attention to waste segregation and collecti0on
25) Technological obsolescence
26) Miscellaneous causes
Systematic Approach to Waste Reduction
1) First of all the total waste to the whole system is recognized
2) Then the stages at which waste is generated are identified
3) Then the sub-stages are identified in which above wastages can be put.
4) Then waste reduction program is implemented at each stage by planning correcting action and eliminating the cause.
Waste Collection System:
Wastes affect the environment the organization, the public health. Waste collection consists of transporting the waste. It is a major cost element and if efficiently handled, may reduce the overall cost of WM. Waste collection consumes 80 pc of waste reduction program.
The following factors govern the waste collection:
1) Separate the waste at source
2) Make arrangement to collect it in suitable containers of the right materials and right size.
3) Depending upon the generation rate of waste, make arrangements to collect waste from time to time.
4) Offer incentives to segregates waste at sources
5) Carry the waste to the salvage industry for ultimate reuse.
6) Make suitable arrangements to collect both the organic and inorganic wastes.