There can be six steps in doing a job analysis. Let’s look at each of them.
Decide how you’ll use the information since this will determine the data you collect them. Some data collection techniques – like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails – are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employees for the job. Other techniques like the position analysis questionnaire we describe later do not provide qualitative information for job descriptions. Instead they provide numerical ratings for each job; these can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.
Organizations Chart: A chart that shows the organization wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom.
Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Organization charts show the organization wide division of work, how the job in question rates to other job and where the job fits in the overall organization. The chart should show the title of each position and, by means of interconnecting lines, who reports to whom and with whom the job incumbent communicates.
Process Chart for Analyzing a Job’s Workflow:
Information from plant manager >> Components input from suppliers
Job under study ‘Quality Control Clerk’.
Information output to plant manager regarding component quality >> Product quality output to plant manager
A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the work flow. In its simplest form a process chart shows the flow of inputs to ad outputs from the job you’re analyzing. (the quality control clerk is expected to review components from suppliers, check components going to the plant managers and give information regarding component’s quality to these managers) Finally, the existing job description, if here is one usually provides a starting point for building the revised job description.
Select representative positions. There may be too many similar jobs to analyze them all. For example, it is usually unnecessary to analyze the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do.
Actually analyze the job – by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. For this step, use one or more of the job analysis methods explained later.
Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. This review data and conclusions, by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of the job activities.
Develop a job description and job specification. These are two tangible product of the job analysis. The job description (to repeat) is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, as well as its important features, such as working conditions and safety hazards. The job specifications summarize the personal qualities, traits, skills and background required for getting the job done. It may be in a separate document or in the same document as the job description.
In some firms, job analysis is still a time consuming process. It might take several days to interview 5 or 6 sample employees and their managers, and to try to explain to them, the process and the reason for the analysis. Increasingly, however, the same process might take just three or four hours. The steps might include: (1) Greet participants and conduct very brief introductions; (2) briefly explain the job analysis and the participants’ roles in this process (3) spend about 15 minutes determining the scope of the job you’re about to analyze, by getting agreement on the job’s basic summary; (4) identify the job’s broad functional or duty areas, such as administrative and supervisory (5) identify tasks within each duty area, using a flip chart or collaboration software and finally (6) print the task list and get the group to sign off on it.