Recycling of Wastes

The wastes can be recycled / reused. For this purpose, suitable recycling projects are created. In recycling, the waste is used as input to the same process/system. e.g: recycling of foundry scrap. In reuse, the waste is used as input to some other process / system e.g. sugarcane bagasse is used to prepare paper. In reuse of waste, we may generate power or by-products e.g. bio-gas generates electricity/fuel and molasses produces alcohol. In reclamation, the damaged, rejected or undesired outputs are converted by repair or processing. Recovery is a general term to indicate gain of resources from wastes.

Waste Disposal System:

Waste can be classified by two categories in terms of its disposal

1) Salvable waste — They have the salvage value e.g. scrap, rejected goods, surplus and obsolete items.
2) Non-salvable waste — They have no salvage value, but need further processing and treatment for disposal.

Disposal of salvable Waste – Management of Surplus and scrap Introduction

Eventually surplus is usually not an inspiring word, every manufacturer unwillingly and yet unavoidably manufactures surplus. To make matters worse, surplus is more often than not, associated unglamorously with ‘Junk’ and ‘Scrap’ heaps. Consequently surplus is seldom considered an enchanting business activity and therefore, it rarely receives the management attention it deserves. This is highly deplorable because the total cost of production is the sum of cost outlays on labor, materials and direct overheads les any return from the successful sale of all kinds of surplus materials. Strikingly enough, often scrap volume is high enough for the proceeds of sale to rank as an appreciable secondary income source. Hence, profits can be maximized when all elements affecting cost are fully controlled.

What is Surplus?

Industrial surplus is defined as those materials which are in excess of the reasonable operational requirements of the concern. Surplus is the state of an item when stock is likely to last longer than reasonable period or when it is no longer required for use.

Surplus tock generally arises on the following occasions:

1) When purchases have been made in larger quantities than the usual requirements. However, when inventory control is pursued with one diligence, such situation will not generally occur.
2) When operations are suddenly curtailed. This applies mostly to production materials, especially raw materials and components tools and certain general stored items also may become surplus in this manner.
3) When, at the materials procurement, on account of some error or miscalculation that has crept in, of course, inadvertently the wrong item has been purchased.
4) When the usual materials are rendered useless due to change in materials specifications to illustrate, if the specification normally used or manufacturing component is EN3 B2 dia steel bar and that has been changed to EN3 B3 dia or something else, the original material is naturally turned surplus.
5) When a project is completed some quantities of the items, used for the commissioning of the project are bound to be left out. This surplus to illustrate, if a building is constructed by the concern itself, it is most common to find that certain quantity of material used for the purpose e.g. cement, steel, bar wire, wire mesh etc., are left unutilized – they are termed surplus.

In this connection, surpluses emanate from three primary sources:

a) Scrap and waste
b) Surplus, obsolete or damaged stock items.
c) Surplus, obsolete or damaged equipment

Surplus from Scrap and Waste:

Waste, spoilage, empty drums and bags which are not returnable to suppliers, broken and worn out tools are beyond repairs, irreparable parts of machinery, turning and borings from machines are all commonly termed as “scrap”.

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