There are various ways (interviews, or questionnaires, for instance) to collect information on the duties, responsibilities, and activities of a job. The most important ones are outlined here in this article. In practice, you could use any one of them, or combine several. The basic rule is to use those that best fit your purpose. Thus, an interview might be appropriate for creating a listing of job duties and job description, whereas the more Quantitative Position Analysis Questionnaire may best be used for quantifying each job’s relative worth for compensation purposes.
Some Job analysis Guidelines>>>
In any event, there are several practical considerations to keep in mind.
First, conducting the job analysis usually involves a joint effort by a human resources specialist, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor. The human resources specialist (perhaps a human resources manager, job analyst, or consultant) might observe and analyze the job and then develop a job description and specification. Often the supervisor and worker fill out questionnaires listing the subordinate’s duties and activities. The supervisor and worker may then review and verify the job analyst’s conclusions regarding the job’s activities and duties.
Second, job analysis almost always requires collecting job analysis information from several people familiar with the job (called subject matter experts) such as job incumbents and their supervisors using questionnaires and interviews. For example the job incumbent or his or her supervisor alone will not suffice.
Third, if there are several employees doing the same job (as you might find for instance with the jobs of programmer assembler or sales clerk), it is typical to collect job analysis information from several of them from different departments, and then average up your results, to determine how much time a typical employee on that job spends on each job duty. The caveat is that employees who have the same job title but work in different departments may experience very different pressures. Therefore, simply adding up and averaging the amount of time that, say, recruiters in the engineering office and assembly plant each need to devote to interviewing candidates could end in misleading results. The point is that you must understand the job’s departmental context: The way someone with a particular job title sends his or her time is not necessarily the same from department to department.
Fourth, make sure the questions and surveys are clear and understandable to the respondents.
Fifth, if possible, observe and question respondents early enough in the job analysis process to catch any problems while there’s still time to correct the job analysis procedure (such as the questions) you’re using.
Interviews, questionnaires, observations, and diary/logs are the most popular methods for gathering job analysis data. They all provide realistic information about what job incumbents actually do. Managers use them for developing job descriptions and job specifications.
Interviews are popular methods for obtaining job related information. They may range from completely unstructured interviews (Tell me about your job) to highly structured ones in which job analysts follow detailed questionnaire in asked their questions.
Managers may conduct individual interviews with each employee, group interviews with groups of employee who the same job, and / or supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job. They use group interviews when a large number of employees are performing similar or identical work, since it can be quick and inexpensive way to gather information. As a rule, the workers immediate supervisor attends the group session; if not you can interview the supervisor separately to get that person’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities.
Which kind of interview you use, you need to be sure that interviewee fully understands the reason for the interview, because there’s a tendency for such interviews to be viewed, rightly or wrongly as efficiency evaluations. If so, interviews may hesitate to describe their jobs accurately.