Apprenticeship training: A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on the job training.
Apprenticeship training is a process by which people become skilled workers, usually through a combination of formal learning and long term on the job training. It traditionally involves having the learner/ apprentice study under the tutelage of a master craftsperson. When steelmaker Dofasco discovered that many of their employees would be retiring during the next 5 to 10 years, the company decided to revive its apprenticeship training program. Applicants are prescreened. New recruits then spend about 32 months in an internal training program that emphasizes apprenticeship training, learning various jobs under the tutelage of experienced employees.
The US Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration offers apprenticeship training along with a number of other types of training programs. Figure below lists 25 popular recent apprenticeships.
According to the US Department of Labor apprenticeship database, the occupations listed below had the highest numbers of apprentices in 2001. These findings are approximate because the database includes only about 70% of registered apprenticeship programs and none of the unregistered apprenticeship programs and none of the unregistered ones.
Boilermaker, Bricklayer (construction), Carpenter, Construction craft laborer, Cook (any industry), Cook (hotel and restaurant), Correction officer, Electrician, Electrician (aircraft), Electrician (maintenance), Electronics mechanic, Firefighter, Machinist, Maintenance mechanic (any industry), Millwright operating engineer, Painter(construction), Pipe fitter (construction), Plumber, Power plant operator, Roofer, Sheet metal worker, Structural steel worker, Telecommunication technician. Tool and die maker.
Apprenticeship in India:
Apprentices Act, 1961
The Apprentices Act of 1961 regulates and controls training of apprentices.
The Apprentices act, 1961 was enacted by the Government of India to regulate and control the training of apprentices. The act is to achieve two objectives (1) promotion of new skills, and (2) improvement / refinement of old skills through theoretical and practical training in a number of trades and occupations. Employers covered by the act are under a statutory obligation to train a prescribed number of persons. However, the employer is not bound to offer employment to the apprentices upon completion of training nor is the trainee bound to accept any employment offer, unless the apprenticeship contract specifies it.
Surveys from the American Society for Training and Development estimate that as much as 80% of what employees learn on the job, they learn not through formal training programs but through informal means, including performing their jobs on daily basis in collaboration with their colleagues.
Although managers don’t arrange informal learning, there’s still much they can do to ensure that it occurs. Most of the steps are simple. For example, Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution in Raleigh, North Carolina, places tools in cafeteria areas to take advantage of the work related discussions taking place. Even installing white boards and keeping them stocked with markers can facilitate informal learning.
Job instruction Training (JIT):
JIT: listing each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by step training for employees.
Many jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught step by step. This step by step process is called job instruction training (JIT). To begin, list all necessary steps in the job, each in its proper sequence. Alongside each step also list a corresponding key point (if any). The steps (as in example) show what is to be done, and the key points show how it’s to be done –and why.
1. Start motor: None
2. Set cutting distance: carefully read scale – to prevent wrong sized cut
3. Place paper on cutting table: Make sure is even – to prevent uneven cut
4. Push paper up to cutter: Make sure paper is tight – to prevent uneven cut
5. Grasp safety release with left hand: Do not release left hand – to prevent hand from being caught in cutter.
6. Grasp cutter release with right hand: Do not release right hand – to prevent and from being caught in cutter.
7. Simultaneously pull cutter and safety releases: Keep both hands on corresponding releases – avoid hands being on cutting table.
8. Wait for cutter to retract: Keep both hands on releases – to avoid having hands on cutting table.
9. Retract paper: Make same cutter is retracted; keep both hands away form releases.
10. Shut off motor: None.