Lecturing has several advantages. It is a quick and simple way to present knowledge to large groups of trainees, as when the sales force needs to learn a new products features while some correctly view lectures as boring and ineffective, studies and practical experience suggest that they can in fact be effective. Here are some guidelines for presenting a lecture:
1) Don’t start out on the wrong foot. For instance, don’t open with an irrelevant joke or by saying something like “I really don’t know why I was asked to speak here today”.
2) Give your listeners signals. For instance, if you have a list of items, start by saying something like. There are four reasons why the sales reports are necessary. The first….
3) Be alert to your audience. Watch body language for negative signals like fidgeting and crossed arms.
4) Maintain eye contact with the audience during your presentation
5) Make sure everyone in the room can hear. Repeat questions that you get from trainees before you answer.
6) Control your hands. Get in the habit of leaving them hanging naturally at your sides.
7) Talk from notes rather than from a script. Write out clear, legible notes on large index cards or on Power Point. Use these as an outline.
8) Break a long talk into a series of five minute talks. Speakers often give a short overview introduction and then spend the rest of a one hour presentation going point by point through their material. Unfortunately, most people quickly lose interest in your list. Experts suggest breaking the long talk into a series of five minute talks, each with its own introduction. Write more, briefer, Power Point slides and spend about a minute on each. Each introduction highlights what you’ll discuss, why it’s important to the audience, and your credibility why they should listen to you.
9) Practice. If possible, rehearse under conditions similar to those under which you will actually give your presentation.
Programmed learning: A systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.
Whether the medium is a textbook, PC, or the Internet, programmed learning or programmed instruction is a step by step, self learning method that consists of three parts:
1. Presenting questions, facts or problems to the learner
2. Allowing the person to respond
3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers.
Generally, programmed learning presents facts a follow up questions frame by frame. The learner can then respond, and subsequent frames provide feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. What the next question is often depends on the accuracy of the learner’s answer to the previous questions.
Intelligent tutoring systems are basically computerized supercharged programmed instruction programs. In addition to providing the trainee with guidance and directing the trainee the next instructional step, intelligent tutoring systems learn what questions and approaches worked and did not work and therefore adjust the suggested instructional sequence to the trainee’s unique needs.
Programmed learning’s main advantage is that it reduces training time. It also facilitate learning and let trainees learn at their own pace, provides immediate feedback, and reduces the learner’s risk of error. On the other hand, trainees do not learn much more from programmed learning than they would from a traditional text book courses. You must therefore weigh the cost of developing the programmed instruction against the faster but not improved learning.