Names and Descriptions of various computer based training techniques>>>
Computer based programmed instruction (PI) programs consist of text, graphics, and perhaps multimedia enhancements that are stored in memory and connected to one another electronically. Material to be learned is grouped into chunks of closely related information. Typically the computer based PI program presents the trainees with the information in the chunk, and then tests them on their retention of the information. If they have not retained the material they are cycled back to the original information, or to remedial information. If they have retained the information they move on to the next information to be learned.
Training provided in part or in whole through the use of a computer. Computer based training is the term most often used in private industry or the government for training employees using computer assisted instruction.
Computer managed instruction (CMI) uses a computer to manage the administrative functions of training, such as registration, record keeping, scoring and grading.
When the computer based training system is able to provide some of the primary characteristics of a human tutor, it is often referred to as an intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) system. It is a more advanced form of PI. Expert systems are used to run the tutoring aspect of the training, monitor trainee knowledge within a programmed knowledge model, and provide adaptive tutoring based on trainee responses.
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) make use of artificial intelligence to provide tutoring that is more advanced than ICAI type tutoring. ITS learns through trainee responses the best methods of facilitating the trainee’s learning
Computer simulations provide representatives of a situation and the tasks to be performed in the situation. The representation can range from identical (e.g. word processing training) to fairly abstract (e.g. conflict resolution). Trainees perform and monitor their performance.
Virtual reality is an advanced form of computer simulation, placing the trainee in a simulated environment that is virtually the same as the physical environment. This simulation is accomplished by the trainee wearing special equipment. This simulation is accomplished by the trainees wearing special equipment such as head gear, gloves, and so on, which control what the trainee is able to see, feel and otherwise sense. The trainee learns by interacting with objects in the electronic environment to achieve some goal.
Interactive technologies (wherein trainees receive quick feedback) reduce learning time by an average of 50%. They can also be cost effective once designed and produced. Other advantages include instructional consistency (computers, unlike human trainers, don’t have good days and bad days), mastery of learning (if the trainee doesn’t learn it, he or she generally can’t move to the next step), increased retention, and increased trainee motivation from responsive feedback.
Specialist multimedia software houses like Graphic Media of Portland, Oregon, produce much of the content for CBT programs. They produce both custom titles and generic programs like a $ 999 package for teaching workplace safety.
Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS):
EPSS: Sets of computerized tools and displays that automate training, documentation, and phone support, integrate this automation into applications and provide support that’s faster cheaper and more effective than traditional methods.
People don’t remember everything they learn. Dell, for example, introduces about 80 new products per year, so it’s unrealistic to expect Dell’s technical support people to know every thing about every product. Dell’s training therefore focuses on providing its employees with the general knowledge they need every day, such as Dell’s rules, culture and values and systems and work processes. Performance support systems then deliver the rest of what they need to know, they need it.
EPSS are computerized tools and displays that automate training, documentation and phone support. When you call a Dell service rep about a problem with your new computer, he or she is probably asking questions that are prompted by an EPSS; it takes you both, step by step through an analytical sequence. Without the EPSS, Dell would have to train its service reps to memorize an unrealistically large number of solutions. Aetna Insurance cut its 13 week instructor led training course for new call center employees by about two weeks, by providing the employees with performances support tools.