INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL MOBILITY
External mobility refers to movement of an employee from one organization to another seeking better placement based on his skills and the requirements and needs of various organizations. Employees resort to external mobility techniques and the organizations resort to external candidates when the chances of suitable placement on either side or both the sides are non-existent within an organization. An employee prefers internal mobility as long as he is sure of getting suitable placement/employment within the organization. Similarly, organizations may resort to internal mobility until they find suitable candidate to different jobs.
Need for Internal Mobility:
Basically internal mobility is necessary to match the employeeâ€™s skill and requirement with the requirement of the job and those of the organization continuously. Internal mobility is needed because of the following:
1. Changes in job structure, job design, job grouping etc.
2. Changes in technology, mechanization etc, resulting in enhancement of job demands.
3. Expansion and diversification of production/operations.
4. Adding different lines of auxiliary and supportive activities.
5. Taking up of geographical expansion and diversification.
6. Introduction of creative and innovative ideas in all the areas of management resulting in increased job demands.
7. Changes in employee skill, knowledge, abilities, aptitude, values etc.
8. Changing demands of trade unions regarding protecting the interests of their members.
9. Changing government role in human resources management.
10. National economic and business trends and their impact on job design and demands.
11. Problem of maintenance of interpersonal relations and sound human relations.
12. Social and religious conditions of the employees or the region.
Purposes of Internal Mobility:
The purposes of internal mobility are four-fold namely:
1. To improve the effectiveness of the organization.
2. To maximize the employee efficiency.
3. To ensure discipline
4. To adopt organizational changes.
(i) To Improve the Effectiveness of the Organization:
The organizational effectiveness depends largely on how well the policies, programs and procedures are implemented in actual practice, which in turn depends on suitability of employeeâ€™s skill, knowledge, commitment etc., to the job requirement. Employee suitability to the job requirements can be mostly secured through proper placement and job reassignment to internal employees as and when vacancies occur. Employeeâ€™s contribution and commitment to the organization can be maximized when he is placed in the right job. Thus right placement, in addition to other factors contributes much to improve the organizational effectiveness.
(ii) To Maximize Employee Efficiency:
Employeesâ€™ existing skill, knowledge etc can be aptly utilized when a proper job is assigned to them besides other factors. Upwards job assignment to an employment certainly helps in motivating the employee, boosting his morale and improving his commitment to the job and organization in addition to utilizing the skills of higher order. Even horizontal mobility of employee helps in reassigning the job where employeeâ€™s skill can be better utilized. Internal mobility helps for optimum utilization of employee skills and in turn increases employee efficiency through motivation.
(iii) To Ensure Discipline:
Discipline is highly essential to implement the programs in right time and in right manner. Demotions can be used to ensure discipline and to correct the wrong placements and job assignments.
(iv) To Adapt to Organizational Changes:
Organizational changes include operational changes like changes in production levels and schedules, market levels, share, schedule, and direction. Economic changes like inflation and deflation, changes in technology, expansion, diversification, geographical spread etc. All these organizational changes should be met by proper job reassignment to the existing employees. Promotions meet the demand for higher order skills, transfer meet the demand or any adjustment in the same or similar level of skills, knowledge etc whilst demotions meet the demands of the depression.