Various states of demand and the corresponding marketing tasks

Today Marketing is no longer confined to business firms. It has been adopted for social purposes and by non-profit organizations also. The Govt. of India has started using marketing principles for propagating social causes like family planning, child care, and immunization of children against dreaded diseases. In this context various types of demands are listed below:

1.Negative demand
This occurs when a major part of the market dislikes the product and may even pay a price to avoid it. The marketing task is to analyze the reasons for this dislike and to find out whether a marketing program consisting of product redesign, lower prices, and more positive promotion could change the customer’s belief and attitude.

2.No demand
Here the target market may be uninterested or indifferent to the product. For example, a young couple may not be interested in adopting family planning. The marketing task is to find ways to connect the benefits of the product with the person’s natural needs and interests.

3.Latent demand
Many consumers may share a strong need that cannot be satisfied by any existing product. There is a strong latent demand for more-efficient vehicles .The marketing task is to measure the size of the potential market and develop effective goods and services that would satisfy the demand.

4.Falling demand
Every organization, sooner or later, faces demand for one or more of its product. The marketer must analyse the causes of market decline and determine whether demand can be restimulated by finding new target markets, changing the product’s features or developing more effective communication .The marketing task is to reverse the declining demand through creative remarketing of the product.

5.Irregular demand
Many organizations face demand that varies on a seasonal, daily, or even hourly basis, causing problems of idle capacity or overworked capacity. Museums are under visited during weekdays and overcrowded during weekends .Likewise, holiday resorts are visited more frequently during summer and winter holidays and are idle in other seasons .The marketing task, called synchro marketing , is to find ways to alter the time pattern of demand through flexible pricing , promotion and other incentives.

6.Full demand
This is an ideal situation .Organizations face full demand when they are satisfied with their volume of business. The marketing task is to maintain the current level of demand in the face of changing consumer satisfaction to make sure it is doing a good job.

7.Overall demand
Some organizations like Maruti Udyog face a demand level that is higher than they can or want to handle The marketing task called demarketing , requires finding ways to reduce the demand temporarily or permanently .General marketing and reducing promotion and service is one way of handling this situation .Selective de-marketing consists of trying to reduce the demand coming from those parts of the market that are less profitable or less in need of the service .De-marketing does not aim to destroy demand but only reduce its level, temporarily or permanently .

8.Unwholesome demand
Unwholesome products require organized efforts to discourage their consumption .Campaigns have been conducted against cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, etc. The marketing task is to help people give up the habit by using such tools as fear communications, price hikes, and reduced availability .Among the non-profit organizations using marketing concepts and principles are the police, the armed forces, educational institutions and of late, even newly created nursing homes.

Education campaigns aimed at correcting the attitudes of people has been launched by the Government through Print and Electronic media.

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