Training and Development

This is written as per the request in forums.
Once you’ve decided to train employees and have identified their training needs and goals, you have to design the training program. This basically means deciding on the actual content (the courses and step by step instructions, for instance) as well as on how to deliver the training – on the job or via the Web or instance.

Some employers create their own training content but there is also a vast selection of online and off line content and packages from which to choose. You’ll find turnkey, off the shelf programs on virtually any topic – from occupational safety to sexual harassment to Web design – from tens of thousands of online and off line providers.

In any case there are various methods for employers to actually deliver the training. We’ll start with what is probably the most popular: on the job training.

On the Job training:

On the job training: Training a person to learn a job while working on it.

On the job training (OJT) means having a person learn a job by actually doing it. Every employee, from mailroom clerk to CEO, gets on the job training when he or she joins a firm. In many firms, OJT is the only training available. All too often the employer says, “Here’s your desk … get started”.

Types of ‘On the job training’:

The most familiar type of on the job training is the coaching or understudy method. Here, an experienced worker or the trainee’s supervisor trains the employee. This may involve simply acquiring skills by observing skills by observing or (preferably) having the supervisor or job expert show the new employee the ropes, step by step. The Men’s Wear house, with 455 stores nationwide makes extensive use of on the job training. It has few full time trainers. Instead, the men’s Wear house has a formal process of cascading responsibility for training. Every manager is formally accountable for the development of his of her direct subordinates.

Job rotation ii which an employee (usually a management trainee) moves from job to job at a planned interval is another OJT technique. Jeffery Immelt progressed through such a process in becoming GE’s new CEO. Special assignments similarly give lower level executives first hand experience in working on actual problems.

Advantages and Guidelines:

OJT has several advantages. It is relatively inexpensive; trainees learn while producing; and there is no need for expensive off site facilities like classrooms or programmed learning devices. The method also facilitates learning, since trainees learn by doing and get quick feedback on their performance.

But there are several guidelines to follow. Most important, don’t take the success of an on the job training for granted. Carefully train the trainers themselves (often the employees’ supervisors), and provide the necessary training materials. Trainers should know, for instance the principles of motivation learners. Low expectations on the trainer’s part may translate into poor trainee performance (a phenomenon researchers have called the golden effect) so, trainers should emphasize the high expectations they have for their trainees success.

OJT Steps: Here are some steps to help ensure OJT success.

Step 1: Prepare the Learner

1. Put the learner at ease
2. Explain why he or she is being taught
3. Create interest find out what the learner already knows about the job.
4. Explain the whole job and relate it the some job the worker already knows.
5. Place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible.
6. Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.

Step 2: Present the Operation

1. Explain quantity and quality requirements
2. Go through the job at the normal work pace.
3. Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step. Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made.
4. Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points.
5. Have the learner explain the steps as you got through the job at a slow pace.

Step 3: Do a Tryout

1. Have the leaner go through the job several times, slowly explaining each step to you. Correct mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated step the first few times.
2. Run the job at the normal pace.
3. Have the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed
4. As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do this job, let the work begins. But don’t abandon him or her.

Step 4: Follow up

1. Designate to whom the learner should of for help.
2. Gradually decrease supervision checking work from time.
3. Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior.
4. Compliment good work.

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